Chapter 3.2 (Home Science 5)

Nutritional Deficiencies and Disorders

Our bodies need various nutrients to function well. We get these nutrients from various foods. When our bodies lack these nutrients, we get different health problems.

Food Intake and Nutritional Deficiencies and Disorders

The health of a person is determined by the food the person eats. If a person does not eat all the needed nutrients, the person may get sick.

Healthy learners studying together

Activity 1

Finding out the meaning of nutritional deficiencies and disorders

Work in groups and explore more

1. Search the internet for the meaning of the terms:

  • Nutritional deficiencies.
  • Nutritional disorders.

2. Talk about the meaning of nutritional deficiencies and disorders.

3. Write the answers in your exercise book.

Share with the rest of the learners.

Activity 2

Identifying nutritional deficiencies and disorders

Look at the pictures below.

Persons showing signs of nutritional deficiencies and disorders

Work in groups

  1. Discuss the nutritional deficiencies and disorders shown in the pictures.
  2. Write the answers in your exercise books.

Explore more

  • Search the internet and print material for images showing the following nutritional deficiencies and disorders: marasmus, kwashiorkor, rickets, constipation, night blindness, scurvy, nutritional anaemia and goitre.
  • Write the nutritional deficiencies and disorders in your exercise book.
  • Download the images and print them, then mount them in your scrapbook.

Now you know

  • Nutritional deficiencies occur when the body lacks enough nutrients for proper functioning.
  • Nutritional disorders are diseases we get when the body lacks enough nutrients from our foods.

Causes, Signs and Symptoms, and Prevention of Nutritional Deficiencies and Disorders

There are various causes, signs and symptoms of different nutritional diseases and disorders. Knowing them will help in preventing the nutritional deficiencies and disorders.

Activity 3

Naming the causes, signs and symptoms, and prevention of nutritional deficiencies and disorders

Your teacher will show you charts on causes, signs and symptoms and prevention of nutritional deficiencies and disorders:

  • Marasmus.
  • Constipation.
  • Nutritional anaemia.
  • Rickets.
  • Kwashiorkor.
  • Night blindness.
  • Goitre.
  • Scurvy.

Work in groups

  • Talk about nutritional deficiencies and disorders.
  • For each disorder, talk about its causes, signs and symptoms and prevention.

Nutrional deficiencies and disorders

Disorder

Causes

Signs and symptoms

Prevention

Marasmus

Severe deficiency of proteins, carbohydrates and fats

  • Extreme weight loss
  • Body weakness and slow growth
  • Very thin and wrinkled face
  • Alertness
  • Take balanced diet in the correct quantities

Kwashiorkor

Lack of proteins

  • Swelling of stomach, hands, face and feet.
  • Thin, brown and scattered hair.
  • Dull and inactive
  • Poor growth
  • Increase food sources of proteins e.g., liver, beans, beef and green grams
  • Take a balanced diet rich in proteins
  • Breast feed for as long as possible

Rickets

Lack of vitamin D, calcium and phosphorous

  • Bow legs or knock knees
  • Poor growth
  • Weak Bone
  • Poor development of teeth
  • Eat foods rich in vitamin D, calcium and phosphorous such as milk, fish

Constipation

Lack of fibre

  • Passing stools less than three times a week.
  • Hard stools.
  • Difficulty in passing stool.
  • Increase foods rich in fibre especially fruits and vegetables
  • Increase intake of water

Night blindness

Lack of Vitamin A

  • Inability to see in dim light.
  • Increase Vitamin A rich foods especially carrots, liver, oily fish, eggs, milk and pumpkin

Scurvy

Vitamin C deficiency

  • Swollen and bleeding gums.
  • Loose teeth.
  • Unhealthy skin
  • Wounds that take long to heal
  • Increase foods rich in Vitamin C such as oranges, guavas and passion fruits

Nutritional anaemia

Lack of iron

  • Feeling tired most of the time
  • Headaches
  • Dizziness that my lead to fainting
  • Paleness of tongue, gums and inner side eye lids
  • Increase foods rich in iron such as liver, beef, beetroot and dark green leafy vegetables such as black nightshade (managu)

Goitre

Lack of iodine

  • Swelling at the base of the neck.
  • A tight feeling in the throat.
  • Difficulty in swallowing.
  • Using iodized salt
  • Increase foods rich in iodine e.g., fish

Healthy Eating Habits

We should always practise healthy eating habits. This will help us prevent nutritional deficiencies and disorders.

Activity 4

Identifying healthy eating habits

Look at the picture

Grade Five Learners having a meal

Work in groups

  1. Name the foods shown in the picture.
  2. Discuss which foods in the picture reflect a healthy eating habit.
  3. Talk about why we should eat the right quantity of food.
  4. Talk about the importance of eating a variety of foods.
  5. Identify the nutritional deficiencies that are caused by lack of enough food sources of Vitamin C and Iron.
  6. Name 2 symptoms of the nutritional deficiencies above.

Share with the rest of the learners.

Examples of menus for a healthy diet

Breakfast

Lunch

Dinner

Day 1

  • Orange
  • Tea with milk
  • Arrow roots
  • Ground nuts
  • Mango
  • Steamed spinach
  • Bean stew
  • Boiled rice
  • Green leafy vegetables (managu)
  • Fried liver
  • Matoke

Day 2

  • Pawpaw
  • Tea with milk
  • Brown bread
  • Boiled egg
  • Sliced pineapple
  • Beef stew
  • Ugali
  • Fried Sukuma wiki
  • Ripe banana
  • Steamed cabbage
  • Chicken stew
  • Chapati

Home Activity

  1. Copy the daily log above in your exercise book.
  2. With the help of your parent or guardian, use it to write the foods you eat on a daily basis.
  3. Use the filled log to find out if you are practising healthy eating habits at home.

Revision Exercise

1. Name the causes of the following nutritional deficiencies and disorders:

  1. Rickets: 
  2. Nutritional anaemia: 
  3. Kwashiokor: 
  4. Goitre: 

2. State two signs and symptoms of the following nutritional deficiencies and disorders:

Signs

Symptoms

a) Marasmus

1) 

2) 

1) 

2) 

b) Nutritional anaemia

1) 

2) 

1) 

2) 

c) Night blindness

1) 

2) 

1) 

2) 

3. Name three ways of preventing nutritional deficiencies and disorders.

1) 

2) 

3) 

Please wait